Aug 20

Space Rocket History #126 – Apollo-Saturn IB: AS-201, AS-202, and AS-203

Apollo Saturn 201 employed the Saturn IB launch vehicle, which  was the up-rated version of the Saturn I rocket flown in ten earlier Saturn-Apollo missions. It featured an upgrade of the first stage engines to increase thrust from 1,500,000 lb-ft of thrust to 1,600,000 lb-ft. The second stage was the S-IVB.  This stage used a new liquid hydrogen-burning J-2 engine which would also be used on the S-II second stage of the Saturn V lunar launch vehicle…

AS-201 Recovery

AS-201 Recovery

Apollo-Saturn 201 Launch

Apollo-Saturn 201 Launch

AS-202 Launch

AS-202 Launch

AS-203 Launch

AS-203 Launch

Jul 16

Space Rocket History #121 – Pegasus Wings inside SA-8 (AS-104), SA-9 (AS-103), & SA-10 (AS-105) and a Command Module update for 1965

The Pegasus satellite was named for the winged horse of Greek mythology.  Like its namesake, the Pegasus was notable for its “wings”, a pair of 29 meter long, 4.3 meter wide arrays of 104 panels fitted with sensors to detect punctures by micrometeoroids at high altitudes.  In its stored position with panels folded inside the Apollo service module, the Pegasus was 5.3-meters high, 2.1 meters wide, and 28-cm deep.

Pegasus Stowed Inside the Boilerplate Service Module

Pegasus Stowed Inside the Boilerplate Service Module

Pegasus Micrometeoroid Detection Satellite Deployed

Pegasus Micrometeoroid Detection Satellite Deployed

Pegasus Deployment Sequence

Pegasus Deployment Sequence

SA-9 Launch

SA-9 Launch

SA-8 Launch

SA-8 Launch

SA-10 Launch

SA-10 Launch

Interior of Command Module

Interior of Command Module

Jun 11

Space Rocket History #117 – Apollo: Lunar Module Design

Since the lunar module would fly only in space (earth orbit and lunar vicinity), the designers could ignore the aerodynamic streamlining demanded by earth’s atmosphere and build the first true manned spacecraft, designed solely for operating in the spatial vacuum.

Lunar module generations from 1962 to 1969

Lunar module generations from 1962 to 1969

James Webb examines models of the LEM and CM

James Webb examines models of the LEM and CM

Underside of LEM descent stage shows fuel tank installation

Underside of LEM descent stage shows fuel tank installation

LEM Descent Stage

LEM Descent Stage

Mockup of LEM cabin with seats

Mockup of LEM cabin with seats

1964 Version of LEM, No Seats and Triangular windows

1964 Version of LEM, No Seats and Triangular windows

LEM Sleep Stations

LEM Sleep Stations

Jun 04

Space Rocket History #116 – Apollo: Little Joe II

A few seconds after liftoff, a fin-vane at the base of the booster stuck and started the 13-meter-tall spacecraft-booster combination spinning like a bullet. Twenty-six seconds into the flight the vehicle started coming apart. The abort-sensing system signaled the launch escape tower rocket to fire and pull the spacecraft away…

White Sands New Mexico

White Sands New Mexico

Launch Pad Abort Test

Launch Pad Abort Test

Little Joe II, A-001 with BP-12

Little Joe II, A-001 with BP-12

Little Joe II Flight Profile

Little Joe II Flight Profile

Little Joe II Real Emergency.

Little Joe II Real Emergency.

Little Joe II On the Pad

Little Joe II On the Pad

Little Joe Pad Abort Test

Little Joe Pad Abort Test

A-001 Launch

A-001 Launch

Little Joe II A-002

Little Joe II A-002

May 28

Space Rocket History #115 – Saturn I: SA-4, SA-5, SA-6, and SA-7

Saturn 1, SA-6 was the first orbital launch of an Apollo Spacecraft by a Saturn Launch Vehicle and also the first flight utilizing an active ST-124 Stabilized Platform.

Saturn I SA-5

Saturn I SA-4

SA-5 Demensions

SA-5 Demensions

SA-5 Section Cuts

SA-5 Section Cuts

S-IV Second Stage of SA-5

S-IV 2nd Stg of SA-5

SA-5 on the Pad

SA-5 on the Pad

SA-5 Launch

SA-5 Launch

SA-6 Demensions

SA-6 Demensions

SA-6 Spacecraft

SA-6 Spacecraft

SA-6 on the Pad

SA-6 on the Pad

Von Braun, Mueller and Rees watching SA-6

Von Braun, Mueller and Rees watching SA-6

SA-7 Launch

SA-7 Launch

May 21

Space Rocket History #114 – Apollo: Command Module Design and Development 1963-1964 Part 2

Max Faget’s position was that considering the difficulty of the job,  if each mission was successful half the time, it would be well worth the effort.  But Gilruth thought that was too low.  He want a 90% mission success ratio and a 99% ratio for Astronaut safety.  Walt Williams who was currently running the Mercury program believed that astronaut safety needed to be limited to only 1 failure in a million which was 99.9999%.

Launch Escape Vehicle Configuration

Launch Escape Vehicle Configuration

Jettison of the Launch Escape System after a Successful Launch

Jettison of the Launch Escape System after a Successful Launch

Full-Scale Mockup of the Service Module with Panels Off

Full-Scale Mockup of the Service Module with Panels Off

The CM Probe Slips into the LM's Dish-shaped Drogue, and 12 latches on the Docking Ring Engage, to Lock the Spacecraft Together, Airtight

The CM Probe Slips into the LM’s Dish-shaped Drogue, and 12 latches on the Docking Ring Engage

The Cabin Section of the Command Module being Assembled at North American Aviation

The Cabin Section of the Command Module being Assembled at North American Aviation

Command Module Elbow & Shoulder Clearance Problem

Command Module Elbow & Shoulder Clearance Problem

May 14

Space Rocket History #113 – Apollo: Command Module Design and Development 1963-1964

…From the information they gathered on the existing technical problems, Disher and Tischler concluded that prospects were only one in ten that Apollo would land on the moon before the end of the decade….

The "big dish" at Canberra Australia

The “big dish” at Canberra Australia

11/16/63 Blkhouse 37, NASA new Manned Space Flight chief George Mueller briefed. JFK there 6 days before his death

11/16/63 Blkhouse 37, NASA new Manned Space Flight chief George Mueller briefed. JFK there 6 days before his death

Removing LM from S=IVB stage

Removing LM from S=IVB stage

May 07

Space Rocket History #112 – Apollo: Headquarters

“The contractor role in Houston was not very firm. Frankly, they didn’t want us. There were two things against us down there. Number one, it was a Headquarters contract, and it was decreed that the Space Centers shall use GE for certain things; and number two they considered us (meaning GE) to be  Headquarters spies.”  Edward S. Miller of General Electric.

GE Employees Monitor Activities of a Spacecraft Test

GE Employees Monitor Activities of a Spacecraft Test

Comparison of Spacecraft and Launch Vehicles Configurations

Comparison of Spacecraft and Launch Vehicles Configurations

Apollo Tracking Network

Apollo Tracking Network